Foundations: Grammar 2, Intermediate Level, First Ed.



Book Details



Publication Year



First Edition

About The Author

Professor Suleiman Mazyad


Foundations: Grammar 2 is a developmental skills BOOK for students of English asa foreign language. It presents fundamental structures and vocabulary appropriate for intermediate level students and provides OPPORTUNITIES for practice through extensive and varied exercises. While focusing on grammar, the BOOK actively promotes the development of writing and speaking skills (and by extension reading skills) as well as situationally appropriate language use in everyday life.

Notes to the Teacher


Foundations: Grammar 2 is designed to meet the needs of lower-intermediate and intermediate-level- EFL classes. The introduction of structures and vocabulary is directed toward this level.

Foundations: Grammar 2 is the second in a series of three EFL grammar BOOKS.

The third in the series is Foundations: Grammar 3, which is directed toward upper-intermediate and advanced students.

Presentation of Grammar

Each unit is organized around a group of related structures and usages. The BOOK is designed to be taught in the order in which it is presented; structures and vocabulary in earlier units serve as the basis for material in later units. However, if your class is intermediate rather than lower-intermediate, you may wish to change the order of presentation somewhat to suit the needs of your students and your purposes.

Grammar RECEIVING major emphasis is presented in charts consisting of examples accompanied by explanations. The examples are designed to be almost self-explanatory. The explanations are simplified as much as possible, with a minimum of terminology. Still, the students may not be able to grasp some parts of the charts by themselves at first. The charts are designed to be used as a springboard in class.

You may wish to discuss your own examples drawn from the immediate classroom context and relate them to the examples in the BOOK as preparation for usage exercises. At times you may wish to delve into a usage exercise immediately, discuss form and meaning during the course of the exercise, and then return to a chart for the purpose of making certain generalizations.

The grammar charts serve various functions for various students. Some students devour the charts, while others pay little or no mind, depending upon their learning strategies. Some students need to gain initial understanding from the charts before RISKING use, while others freely RISK anything during usage exercises and refer to the charts only incidentally. In any case, the charts are not intended to be “learned” as an out-of-class homework assignment. A chart is only a starting point and a later reference source.


Vocabulary development is an integral part of the development of structure usage ability.

Vocabulary is introduced and reinforced regularly. At times you will find it necessary to spend time in class discussing new vocabulary during exercises. The introduction of vocabulary is controlled so that it can easily be handled in the classroom and so that students should not have to spend a great deal of time at home looking up words in their dictionaries. Some exercises are specifically designed to enhance vocabulary acquisition while the students are practicing structure usage. For this reason, many exercises are accompanied by pictures/illustration to facilitate teaching/learning vocabulary.


The OBJECTIVE of the exercises is to get students talking about themselves – their activities, their ideas, their environment – as soon as possible, using the target structures. In general, the exercises in any given unit move from ones that focus almost entirely on manipulation of form and meaning to ones that demand more independent usage and involve a combination of skills.

Most of the exercises, those other than the oral exercises, are intended for out-of-class preparation and then in-class use. Typically, a teacher might discuss the grammar in a chart, have the students do the first two or three entries of an exercise in class, and then assign the rest of the exercise to be prepared for the next class. Usually students benefit more from preparing exercises at home than they do from going through exercises “cold” in class. Exercises that the students have prepared at home take less class time to discuss and lead to more fruitful discussion.


Part 1: Simple Present Tense 2

The Imperative Form: instructions, orders, requests, pleas, and suggestions 2
Simple Present Tense – Affirmative and Negative Statements 5
Spelling Rules for -s Endings 5
Simple Present Tense – Yes/No Questions and Short Answers 8
Simple Present Tense – Information Questions 9
Part 2: Personal Pronouns, Possessive Adjectives, and Pronouns 12

Personal Pronouns 12
Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives 13
Part 3: Compound Sentences with and, but, or, and so 15

UNIT 2 17

Part 1: Questions with Whose; Possessive Nouns 18

Questions with Whose 18
Possessive Nouns 19
Part 2: Present Continuous Tense 21

Affirmative Statements 21
Negative Statements 21
Yes/No Questions and Information Questions 23
Yes/No Questions and Short Answers 23
Information Questions 24
Non-Action Verbs 25
Part 3: Modal Auxiliaries: can, may, might, and will 27

Meanings of Modals: ability; possibility; future plans; predictions; permission; 27
and requests

Affirmative and Negative Statements: ability, possibility, future plans, predictions 28
Yes/No Questions: ability, possibility, future plans, predictions 29
Information Questions: ability, possibility, future plans, predictions 30

UNIT 3 33

Part 1: Countable and Uncountable Nouns; Expressions of Quantity 34

Countable and Uncountable Nouns 34
some and any 35
a lot of, many, much 36
Common Partitive Nouns 38
How many…? and How much…? 38
a few, few and a little, little 40

Part 2: Comparisons 41

as …as, less …than 41
Comparisons with –er than and more…than 45
More comparisons: as much – as many…as and more – less – fewer…than 46

UNIT 4 48

Part 1: Simple Past Tense 49

Affirmative and Negative Statements 49
Spelling Rules 50
Yes/No Questions and Short Answers 51
Information Questions 53
Expressing Past Habit: used to 55
Part 2: Articles 57

Indefinite Articles: a/an 57
Definite Article: the 57

UNIT 5 60

Part 1: Prepositions of Time and Place 61

Prepositions of Time 61
Prepositions of Place 62
Part 2: The Future with be going to and will 66

Future with be going to: Affirmative and Negative Statements 66
Yes/No Questions: be going to 67
Information Questions: be going to 68
Affirmative and Negative Statements: will 69
Yes/No Questions: will 71
Information Questions: will 72

UNIT 6 73

Part 1:Transitions Showing Difference 74

Using however 74
Using on the other hand 75
Using in contrast 77
Part 2:Transitions Showing Similarity 79

Using both … and 79
Using and so 80
Part 3: Comparatives and Superlatives 82

Comparatives – Review 82
Superlatives 82
Tag Questions 84

UNIT 7 86

Part 1: Present Perfect Tense (1) 87

Past Participle 87
Regular verbs 87
Irregular verbs 87
Present Perfect Tense: Affirmative and Negative Statements 88
Present Perfect Tense: Yes/No and Information Questions 90
Yes/No Questions 90
Information Questions 91
Part 2: Future Conditional – Future Predictive Conditional 92

Part 3: Comparisons with so, too, either, and neither; but 94

Expressing Similarities with so and too 94
Either and neither 96
Expressing Contrast with but 98

UNIT 8 100

Part 1: Past Continuous Tense 101

Affirmative and Negative Statements 101
Yes/No and Information Questions 105
Yes/No Questions 105
Information Questions 107
Simple Past versus Past Continuous Tense 108
Simple Past Tense 108
Past Continuous Tense 108
When and While with Simple Past and Past Continuous Tenses 109
Part 2: Infinitives 111

Infinitives After Verbs 111
Infinitives After Certain Adjectives and Nouns 113
Part 3: Complex Sentences with because, before, after, as soon as, when, 115

and if

UNIT 9 118

Part 1: Present Perfect Tense (2) 119

Present Perfect with since and for 120
Affirmative and Negative Statements 120
Questions with the Present Perfect Tense 121
Present Perfect: already and yet 125

Part 2: Present Perfect Continuous Tense 126

Affirmative and Negative Statements 126
Questions with Present Perfect Continuous Tense 127
Present Perfect Tense versus Present Perfect Continuous Tense 128

UNIT 10 130

Part 1: Passive Voice with Simple Present and Simple Past Tenses 131

Affirmative: Present 131
Affirmative: Past 131
Negative Statements: Present 132
Negative Statements: Past 133
Yes/No Questions: Present and Past 134
Information Questions: Present and Past 135

UNIT 11 138

Part 1: Gerunds and Infinitives as Subjects 139

Part 2: Gerunds after Prepositions 141

Gerunds as Objects of Prepositions 141
Verbs Followed by Gerunds 143
Verbs Often Followed by Gerunds or Infinitives 146
Verbs Before Objects and Gerunds 148
Infinitive of Purpose: Using in order to 150

UNIT 12 153

Part 1: Relative Clauses 154

A.Who, that, and which as Subjects of Relative Clauses 154

Reduction of Relative Clauses to Relative Phrases 157
Object Pronouns – whom, who, and that 158
Object Pronouns – which and that 159
Using Prepositions in Relative Clauses 160
Part 2: Adverbs of Degree: so, such, enough, and too 162

So and such 162
Enough and too 164
Enough 164
Too 165
Part 3: Modal Auxiliaries: Expressing Advice and Obligation 167

Expressing Advice: should, ought to, and had better 167
Expressing Obligation: have to, have got to, and must 170


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