Foundation 3: Reading Skills, Upper Inter First Ed.

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Book Details

ISBN

978-603-00-5807-5

Publication Year

2010

Edition

First Edition

About The Author

Professor Suleiman Mazyad

PREFACE
Foundations: Reading Skills is a four-level-reading textbook for students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) who have a basic knowledge of English. It is designed primarily to help students prepare for studying in English–medium academic courses.

Foundations: Reading Skills is made up of ten thematically-based units, each of which contains two readings. Skill-building and vocabulary-building activities accompany each reading.
An important goal of Foundations: Reading Skills is to help students become confident readers by increasing their vocabulary base and improving their word-comprehension skills. It engages them in the process of reading thoughtfully and encourages them to move beyond merely passive reading. To accomplish this, the BOOK addresses the reading process in a direct manner, and various reading and vocabulary skills are presented as part of that process. The instruction and practice with reading skills help students increase their reading fluency, and equip them with skills they need for academic achievement. Focus on vocabulary-building promotes their language acquisition and academic advancement. Also, the lexical and syntactic content of the readings has been controlled.
The tasks are varied, accessible, and engaging, and they provide stimuli for frequent student-teacher and student-student interaction. Student awareness of reading and thinking processes is further encouraged in many parts of the BOOK by exercises which require students to WORK in pairs or small groups. In discussions with others, students formulate and articulate their ideas more precisely, and so they acquire new ways of talking and thinking about a text. These activities present OPPORTUNITIES for real-world contact and real-world use of language. Students are asked to write, and then to read each other’s WORK so they can experience the connection between reading and writing.
Traditionally reading classes are based on one of two approaches: in one approach, class time is primarily spent with students doing individual reading and exercise-completion; in the other, class time is devoted to group discussions of the reading and exercise-completion. Because both approaches are important, this BOOK integrates them by alternating reading activities with speaking and/or writing activities.

Within each unit, students will not only practice reading, but they will also receive instruction in various skills and strategies incorporated into the reading process.
The basic format of each unit in Foundations: Reading Skills is as follows:
Before Reading
These pre-reading questions serve to introduce the topic of the reading and get students thinking about that topic. Activating prior knowledge allows students to tap into what they already know and then build on that knowledge, and stirs curiosity. The questions allow students to interact with each other.
Vocabulary Preview
A number of key words which are common in everyday and academic English are explained in simple English. These are followed by a fill-in-the-blanks exercise to make sure that students understand the words and can use them in context. Understanding is crucial to language acquisition.
Scanning and Skimming
In this section students are asked to scan the reading for specific information, or to skim it for main ideas and other general information.
After Reading
In this section a variety of skill-building and vocabulary-building exercises is introduced: determining the main idea; understanding reading structure; guessing meaning from context; recognizing contextual reference; finding topics and topic sentences; understanding signal terms; making an outline; understanding cause and effect; comparison and contrast; exemplification; classification; understanding parts of speech;
understanding antonyms and synonyms, etc. These dynamic skill and vocabulary acquisition exercises ensure that students will develop and acquire the important reading skills and vocabulary needed to make them good readers.
Each unit concludes with discussion questions designed to encourage students to think about, distill, and exchange views about the information they have been presented with throughout the unit. Following the discussion, the students are sometimes requested to write down answers to the discussion questions, a place for students to reflect in writing on the learning in the unit.

Contents
Unit 1: How the Library Became Public page 1

Reading Selections: Part 1: The Carnegie Libraries page 1

Part 2: Library Science page 10

Reading Skills and Strategies: identifying paragraph topics and main ideas, recognizing supporting details, understanding reference

Critical Thinking Skills: summarizing paragraphs

Building Vocabulary: previewing vocabulary, filling in the blanks, guessing meaning from context, focusing on high-frequency words

Language Skills: discussing uses and functions of libraries and relating the readings to

personal situations

Unit 2: Electronic Multimedia and Teenagers page 16

Reading Selections: Part 1: Cell phones page 16

Part 2: The Media Generation page 26

Reading Skills / Strategies: predicting, identifying reading structure, identifying paragraph topics and main ideas, identifying supporting details, understanding the reading, skimming for paragraph topics and main ideas, summarizing paragraphs

Critical Thinking Skills: understanding cause and effect

Building Vocabulary: previewing vocabulary, filling in the blanks, recognizing synonyms, guessing meaning from context, focusing on high-frequency words

Language Skills: discussing cell phones and the media generation and relating the readings to a broader view

Unit 3: How Can I remember? page 34

Reading Selections: Part 1: How Memory WORKS page 34

Part 2: Memory Strategies page 43

Reading Skills / Strategies: scanning for specific information, identifying main ideas, identifying the main idea of the reading, identifying supporting details, understanding

reference, choosing a topic for the reading, identifying paragraph topics,

understanding the reading

Critical Thinking Skills: understanding exemplification, making an outline,

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Contents

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Vocabulary Building: previewing vocabulary, filling in the blanks, guessing meaning from context, identifying nouns and verbs, recognizing vocabulary categories,

focusing on high-frequency words, identifying antonyms

Language Skills: discussing memory and relating the reading to personal situations and

wider views

Unit 4: Sleep Is Not a Luxury page 53

Reading Selections: Part 1: The Importance of Sleep page 53

Part 2: Sleep Disorders page 61

Reading Skills / Strategies: identifying the main idea, correcting false statements, skimming for paragraph topics and main ideas, paraphrasing

Critical Thinking Skills: understanding definitions

Vocabulary Building: previewing vocabulary, filling in the blanks, guessing meaning from context, identifying synonyms and antonyms, recognizing nouns and

verbs

Language Skills: discussing sleep and its disorders and relating the readings to a wider

view

Unit 5: Revision of Unit 1 to 4 page 70

Reading Selection: The Silk Road page 74

Reading Skills / Strategies: scanning for specific information, identifying the main idea of the reading, understanding the reading

Critical Thinking Skills: understanding chronological order

Vocabulary Building: vocabulary preview, high frequency words list, filling in the blanks, noun and verb pairs, matching synonyms and antonyms, making a sentence, guessing meaning from context, focusing on high-frequency words

Language Skills: discussing the silk road

Unit 6: The Brain Exchange page 83

Reading Selections: Part 1: Brain Drain page 83

Part 2: The Brain Gain page 95

Reading Skills / Strategies: predicting, understanding the reading structure, understanding the writer’s intention, understanding the writer’s method, understanding

key points in the reading, understanding the reading, understanding reference, making inferences, skimming for main ideas

Critical Thinking Skills making an outline, summarizing paragraphs

Vocabulary Building: previewing vocabulary, filling in the blanks, guessing meaning from context, focusing on high-frequency words, understanding collocations, identifying synonyms and antonyms

Language Skills: discussing brain drain and relating the reading to a wider view

Unit 7: The Nobel Prizes page 107

Reading Selections: Part 1: Albert Nobel page 107

Part 2: Emil Adolf von Behring page 117

Reading Skills / Strategies: identifying the main idea of the reading, understanding the reading, identifying literal meaning and inferences, scanning for specific information

Critical Thinking Skills: understanding chronological order, making an outline

Vocabulary Building: previewing vocabulary, filling in the blanks, guessing meaning from context, understanding synonyms and antonyms, focusing on high-frequency words, understanding collocation

Language Skills: discussing Nobel prizes and relating the reading to personal situations

Unit 8: How Values Influence Us page 125

Reading Selections: Part 1: What are Values? page 125

Part 2: Conflict and Values page 135

Reading Skills / Strategies: identifying main ideas of paragraphs, identifying supporting details, skimming for topics of paragraphs and topic sentences, understanding the reading

Critical Thinking Skills: summarizing paragraphs

Vocabulary Building: previewing vocabulary, filling in the blanks, recognizing synonyms, understanding idioms, focusing on high-frequency words, identifying adjectives and adverbs, understanding and creating compound words

Language Skills: discussing values and conflict and values and relating the readings to

personal situations

Unit 9: Natural Disasters page 144

Reading Selection: Part 1: Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters page 144

Part 2: Effects of Natural Disasters page 154

Reading Skills / Strategies: understanding reading structure, understanding the writer’s intention, understanding the writer’s method, understanding reference, scanning

for specific information, identifying problems and solutions, understanding the reading

Critical Thinking Skills: understanding contrast, understanding exemplification, organizing cause and effect using graphic organizers

Vocabulary Building: previewing vocabulary, filling in the blanks, guessing meaning from context, focusing on high-frequency words, putting words into categories

Language Skills: discussing natural disasters and their effects on the environment and communities and relating the readings to a wider view

Unit 10: Revision of Units 6 to 9 page 162

Reading Selection: Oral Hygiene page 167

Reading Skills / Strategies: skimming for the main idea of the reading, skimming for main ideas of paragraphs and topic sentences, understanding the reading

Critical Thinking Skills: understanding listing using a graphic organizer

Vocabulary Building: vocabulary preview list, high-frequency words list, filling in the blanks, adjectives and adverbs, matching synonyms and antonyms, making sentences, understanding and creating compound words, guessing meaning from context, focusing on high-frequency words

Language Skills: discussing oral hygiene and relating the reading to a wider view

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